中國專利訴訟程序修法:一審上訴改由最高法院受理

 

China’s Supreme Court Will Hear Appeals on IP Lawsuits Involving Strong Technical Background

【English Version】

2018年10月26日中國通過修法,專業技術性較強的專利上訴案件,2019年起由最高人民法院直接受理,以利統一知識產權的裁判見解,同時加強知識產權司法保護力度。此次修法影響的專利類型,包括發明專利、實用新型專利、植物新品種、基體電路佈局設計、技術秘密、電腦軟體、壟斷等領域。

中國最高人民法院
中國最高人民法院。Rneches 拍攝,CC BY-SA 3.0

According to a decision made by the Standing Committee of National People’s Congress on October 26, 2018, appeal cases involving strong technical backgrounds will be heard by China’s Supreme People’s Court ( SPC ), effective January 1st, 2019. Such legislation that aims to unify standards for hearing intellectual properties (IP) cases and further enhance the judicial protections for IP rights covers disputes on invention patent, utility model patent, new varieties of plants, layout design of integrated circuits, technical secret, computer software, anti-trust, etc. 

根據中國人大網站消息,人大常委會(中國全國人民代表大會常務委員)的憲法和法律委員會針對最高法院提出的《關於專利等案件訴訟程序若干問題的決定(草案)》做出決議如下:

Based on the “ Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress on Several Issues concerning Judicial Procedures for Patent and Other Intellectual Property Cases”,  the decision is made as follows:

一、當事人對發明專利、實用新型專利、植物新品種、集成電路布圖設計、技術秘密、計算機軟件、壟斷等專業技術性較強的知識產權民事案件第一審判決、裁定不服,提起上訴的,由最高人民法院審理。

I. The Supreme Court has the jurisdiction over appeals of first instance judgements or rulings in IP civil lawsuits involving relatively strong technical backgrounds, including disputes on invention patent, utility model patent, new varieties of plants, layout design of integrated circuits, technical secret, computer software and anti-trust. 

二、當事人對專利、植物新品種、集成電路布圖設計、技術秘密、計算機軟件、壟斷等專業技術性較強的知識產權行政案件第一審判決、裁定不服,提起上訴的,由最高人民法院審理。

II. The Supreme Court has jurisdiction over appeals of first instance judgments or rulings in IP administrative lawsuits involving relatively strong technical backgrounds, including disputes on patents, new varieties of plants, layout design of integrated circuits, technical secret, computer software and anti-trust. 

三、對已經發生法律效力的上述案件第一審判決、裁定、調解書,依法申請再審、抗訴等,適用審判監督程序的,由最高人民法院審理。最高人民法院也可以依法指令下級人民法院再審。

III. For retrial requests or Procuratorate’s protest against those effective first instance judgments, rulings or mediations in above mentioned lawsuits, the Supreme Court has the authority to apply trial supervision procedure, or otherwise designate lower courts, to hear such retrial requests or protests. 

四、本決定施行滿三年,最高人民法院應當向全國人民代表大會常務委員會報告本決定的實施情況。

IV. The Supreme Court shall report the implementation status of this Decision to the Standing Committee of National People’s Congress upon completion of the three-year term.

五、本決定自2019年1月1日起施行。

V. This decision comes into effect on January 1, 2019.

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中國的專利訴訟—-無論其專業性或複雜度,專利權有效性問題目前由行政無效程序解決,侵權糾紛由民事訴訟程序解決,一審裁判後的上訴,則由一審法院所在地之高級人民法院受理,因而存在裁判尺度不一的問題。

Under the current practice, the appeals against the decisions of the first instance court on patent infringement litigation and patent validity are heard at provincial level high courts. These cases will only go before the Supreme Court if a further appeal is allowed. Thus, judges in different courts may have some difference in the technical knowledge, as well as the interpretation and opinion of the law.

此次修法目的是將該等行政及民事案件的二審審理權,集中到最高人民法院知識產權法庭(不再由各地高級人民法院審理),藉以逐步統一智財權效力、侵權等兩大類訴訟的程序及裁判標準。新法通過後,知識產權法庭對於其他智財訴訟的一審判決上訴,仍由各地高等法院審理。

Under the new passed procedure, the appeals (for patents involving relatively strong technical backgrounds) against the first instance judgments or rulings on IP civil and administrative lawsuits are both heard by SPC. Appeals not involving high technical or complex issues are still heard by local high courts.

【參考資料來源】

 

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